Diversity of Species

The Evidence That Taxonomic Diversity is a Significant Factor in Changes in Species Diversity

species diversity

Species diversity relates to the variety of life on Earth. Species are grouped into biogeographic regions based on their ecological needs and distribution patterns. These biogeographic regions are related to climatic conditions, but they are not coterminous. For example, the desert biome is found in northern and southern latitudes, while the tropical rainforest biome occurs near the Equator. These biomes make up most phytogeographic kingdoms.

Evenness

The evenness of species diversity measures the relative abundance of species within a community. This index measures the number of species in a community compared to the maximum value for the same number of species. The Shannon index and the Simpson index are two examples of evenness measures.

Richness

Richness of species diversity is a measure of biological diversity. It can be calculated by comparing species numbers in different regions of the same area. The results show that species richness increases with geographical distance. However, the changes in species numbers do not always follow the same trend across different regions. These data can be useful in identifying changes in species composition that have occurred over time.

Taxonomic changes

The most comprehensive information about changes in species diversity is based on taxonomic data, and yet, there is still considerable uncertainty about the true extent and changes in taxonomic diversity. In this article, we will discuss the evidence that taxonomic diversity is a significant factor in changes in species diversity.

Molecular techniques

Molecular techniques for species diversity assessment begin with the extraction of DNA from the organism under study. This DNA is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This technique can detect polymorphism in gene sequences and is very useful for identifying rare species. It is also used to study population genetics.

Hotspots

Geographically speaking, hotspot regions are highly enriched with biodiversity. According to the United Nations’ Red List of Threatened Species, these areas are home to more than half the world’s vascular plant species. They also support an impressive proportion of rare and endemic species. In the Southwest China region alone, there are more than twenty thousand species.

Effects on ecosystem functions

Ecosystems are characterized by a diverse range of goods and services, and changes in biota may influence these services. These changes may be positive or negative, and multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously. Their relative contribution and importance will determine the direction and strength of these cross-boundary effects. Research is needed to explore the mechanisms behind these changes and to quantify their importance. In addition, such research must address context-dependence of observed effects.

Measures of species diversity

There are two main ways to measure species diversity. One approach is phylogenetic diversity, defined as the length of the phylogenetic tree, which includes the species within it. This approach can be useful when assessing the diversity of organisms in a particular ecosystem. It can also capture information about the variation in functional and ecological traits among species.